Asociación Nacional de Fabricantes e Importadores de Productos Fitosanitarios Agrícolas (AFIPA).(–). Manual Fitosanitario. AFIPA, A.G. Gredos Ltda., . Manual fitosanitario: Front Cover. AFIPA, – pages de Fabricantes e Importadores de Productos Fitosanitarios Agrícolas A. G. (Chile). tomato is ppm a.i. (AFIPA, ), as the MIC was not determined due to . Afipa Manual Fitosanitario, Asociación Nacional de.
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Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition,11 3 Spatial distribution of copper, organic matter and pH in agricultural soils affected by mining activities. Aguilar 1C. Gaete 2A. The Aconcagua River Basin, located in north-central Chile, is an important agricultural region of fitosznitario country. However, several copper mining industries are also located in this basin. A total of topsoil samples were collected at varying distances from mining industries.
There were no statistically significant differences between the sampling areas with regard to organic matter content and copper concentration.
Manual Fitosanitario AFIPA A.G. (en este mismo contexto)
However, the sampling areas were significantly different with regard to soil pH. Fitosabitario of the Putaendo sampling area exhibited the lowest pH values mean of 6. In the sampling areas where mining activities were absent, the total copper concentrations ranged from mg kg High copper concentrations above mg kg -1with a maximum of mg kg -1 were generally observed near mining activities or in areas where mining activities were located nearby and upstream. In these sampling areas, the copper concentrations differed by an order of magnitude in nearby locations.
These high and heterogeneously-distributed copper concentrations most likely resulted from either modern or former mining activities. Copper is the main contaminant in the soils of copper mining areas in Chile Goecke et al. Copper is an essential micronutrient to all fitosznitario but is toxic at certain concentrations Mc-Bride, ; Adriano, Environmental or ecological risk is defined as “the potential for adverse effects on living organisms associated with pollution of the environment by effluents, emissions, wastes, or accidental chemical releases; energy use; or the depletion of natural resources” U.
Environmental Protection Agency, Terms of Environment: Glossary, Abbreviations and Acronyms, www. Ecological risk is more related to the bioavailability of the metal that, in turn, is related to the chemical form in which it is found in the soil Adriano, The National Research Council defines bioavailability as the fraction of the total element that is available to the receptor organism. Although the total metal concentration in the soil is not a good indicator of the elements bioavailability, total concentrations are still used by legislations in many countries Ewers, In some cases, legislations consider soil properties that affect metal bio-availability.
For instance, the Council mabual the European Communities and the UK consider the soil pH for maximum concentrations of metals in soils on which sewage sludge is applied.
Chile currently does not have any legislation on the maximum permissible concentrations of metals in soils. To establish the maximum permissible concentrations of copper in soils, its bioavailability can be assessed by exposing organisms, e. In such types of experiments, care should be taken so that soils have wide ranges of copper concentration, pH, and organic matter content. However, little data are available on the spatial distribution of these soil characteristics in agricultural soils of the ARB.
Therefore, the main objective of the present study was to determine the spatial distribution of copper, pH, and organic matter in the agricultural soils of the ARB. Additionally, for metal bioavailability tests with organisms, it is important to sample soils with different sources of contamination because different types of mine wastes have different solubilities Ginocchio et al. Therefore, the second objective of the present study was to estimate the possible sources of contamination.
The information generated from this study will form the basis for choosing locations for fitosanitaril sampling in future studies aimed at assessing copper bioavailability. These boundaries included the agricultural soils that have traditionally been irrigated by gravity. In each sampling area, locations of mining industries were considered possible sources of soil contamination by copper.
A total of topsoil samples cm were collected at varying distances from these industries. Total copper concentrations in the soils were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy following digestion of the samples with nitric-perchloric-hydrofluoric acid mixtures Maxwell, ; Jeffery, The accuracy of the mabual was assessed by including certified reference soils. A solution of 0. The organic matter content was determined by wet combustion with sodium dichromate and sulphuric acid without heat application Sadzawka et al.
Aafipa analyses were performed in duplicate, manuaal average values are reported in Table 1. Variance analysis ANOVA was used to compare the sampling areas with regard to these fitosanitxrio characteristics. Statistically significant differences were determined using a Tukey test. All of the analyses were performed using the programs Excel and Minitab Spatial distribution of organic matter and pH in the ARB soils. The mean values for all areas were in the range of 3.
Background total copper concentrations in the ARB soils. For instance, the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment established a total copper concentration of 63 mg kg -1 as a soil quality guideline for agricultural land use.
The total copper concentrations were in the range of mg kg -1 in the Quillota sampling area, where the only mining activity is a small-scale mine Figure 2Table 2. In agreement with these findings, De Gregori et al. Based on the virtual absence of mining activities in these locations, total copper concentrations in the range of mg kg -1 could be considered to be the background concentrations for the alluvial soil of the ARB. Nonetheless, the natural copper concentrations in the soils of the ARB are expected to be greater than the average soil copper concentrations from the rest of the world due to its geological setting.
In agreement with this claim, we note that the total copper concentration of world soils averages 30 mg kg -1 Adriano, Thus, international legislations for the assessment of the degree of soil contamination should not be applied to Chile because fiosanitario its natural abundance in the soils. It could also be argued that the relatively high total soil copper concentrations in the above-mentioned locations are a result of applications of copper-containing fungicides.
For example, Pietrzak and McPhail reported that the use of copper-based fungicides in Victoria Australia has increased the total copper concentration in some vineyard soils to mg kg -1 compared to background concentrations of approximately 10 mg kg To estimate the effect of fungicides on soil copper concentrations, we assumed the following hypothetical conditions: Under these conditions, manua, would contribute to soil copper concentrations of up to mg kg However, more experiments are necessary to determine the percentage of fungicide retention by the crops.
Nonetheless, manusl contribution of copper-containing fungicides to the soil copper fitosahitario is expected to be similar at all sampling locations because the application of fungicides is not attributed to a specific crop or fiyosanitario type; rather, it is a very common practise for several vegetable and fruit crops in Chile AFIPA, – For this reason, we propose that, independent of the sources of soil copper from the above-mentioned locations, fitosanigario total copper concentrations in the range of mg kg -1 should be manuql to ffitosanitario the background soil concentration.
Spatial distribution of copper in the ARB soils. The spatial distribution of copper concentrations in the soils of the ARB could manuak be influenced either by mining activities or the geological processes of erosion and transport of copper-rich rocks. For example, Schalscha and Ahumada and Gaete et al. If the copper concentrations in the alluvial soils of fitoasnitario ARB were controlled by geological processes, we would expect to observe a homogeneous distribution of the soil copper concentrations in nearby locations.
In contrast, majual heterogeneous distribution of copper concentrations would be indicative of anthropogenic impacts. In the following discussion, the effects of copper mining activities Table 2 and the erosion of copper-rich fitozanitario on copper distribution throughout the soils will be evaluated separately for each sampling area. The fitosanitafio up to mg kg -1 total copper concentrations were observed in the northern section along the El Cobre Creek.
Most likely, these high copper concentrations resulted from the destruction of the mining reservoir during the earthquake of Fol-chi, As a result of this catastrophic event, approximately 6, m 3 of water-saturated mining wastes were dumped into the El Cobre Creek Figure 3.
Most likely, the higher copper acipa along the former creek were also a result of the ritosanitario. Catemu – Llay-Llay sampling area. In the Catemu – Llay-Llay sampling area Figure 4the total copper concentrations ranged from mg kg One exception was a sample collected near the El Sauce mine dump with a measured copper concentration of mg kg -1 Figure 4Table 1.
Catemu – Panquehue sampling area. In the Catemu – Panquehue sampling area Figure 4the total copper concentrations afipx similar to those in the Quillota sampling area, in agreement with the virtual absence of mining activities in both areas Table 2. Catemu – Nilhue sampling area.
The relatively high copper concentrations along the Catemu Creek probably resulted from the erosion of material from the mine and smelter slag dumps that are located in the upstream part of the creek. In agreement with this postulation, the highest measured copper concentration mg kg -1 was observed near the smelter slag dump.
The copper concentrations near the mine dump to the west fitosanitraio Catemu were also relatively high Figure 4.
Catemu – Chagres sampling area. In the Catemu – Chagres sampling area, the highest up to mg kg -1 total copper concentrations were observed to the northeast and to the southwest of the smelter Table 1Figure 4. In addition, some erosion of the smelter slag that was deposited near the river could have contributed to the high copper concentrations to the southwest of the smelter, downstream from the Aconcagua River.
If the copper concentrations in the soils of the Catemu – Chagres sampling area would have been controlled by geological processes, we would expect copper concentrations to not exceed those measured in the Catemu – Panquehue fitosanutario area that is located upstream and nearby.
This, however, was not the pattern revealed by our data Table 1Figure 4.
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We therefore concluded that the relatively high and heterogeneously-distributed copper concentrations in the Catemu – Chagres sampling area most likely resulted from the smelting activities. Aripa smelter at Chagres was constructed in However, effective actions to mitigate its atmospheric emissions were not performed until Folchi, In the Putaendo sampling area Figure 5the total copper concentrations were similar to those in Quillota Figure 2.
We therefore concluded that small-scale mining mankal the Putaendo sampling area Table 2 had a minor impact on the soil copper concentrations. Los Andes sampling area. In the northeastern part of the Los Andes sampling area, along the El Cobre Creek, the relatively high copper concentrations most likely resulted from the activities of two small-scale mines Figure 6.
However, the copper concentrations in this location were considerably greater than fjtosanitario in the Putaendo sampling area, where a great number of small-scale mines are present Figure 5Table 2. This difference was probably due to the distance between the sampling locations and the mining activities.
In contrast, in the Los Andes sampling areas, mines were situated in close proximity to the study area boundary and the sampling locations. In the eastern part of the Los Andes sampling area, where the confluence of the Juncal and Colorado Rivers gives rise to the Aconcagua River Figures 6 and 7total copper concentrations differed by an order of magnitude in locations in close proximity Table 1.
The samples collected along the Colorado River, where mining activities are absent, exhibited considerably smaller copper concentrations than the samples collected along the Aconcagua River, downstream of the confluence of the Juncal and Colorado Rivers.
Manual Fitosanitario AFIPA A.G. (en este mismo contexto)
In the latter afipw, the relatively high copper concentrations suggested that they resulted from the large-scale mining activities of the Andina complex located upstream along the Blanco River, the main tributary of the Juncal River Figure 7Table 2. Additional studies are necessary to establish a pattern for the soil copper distributions in the region of the Colorado and Juncal River confluence and the effects of mining activities. In other locations along the Aconcagua River in the Los Andes sampling area Figure 6Table 1the relatively high concentrations could be due either to the natural abundance of copper in the soil or to contamination from upstream mining industries.