Cartilla orientadora del ICFES para las Pruebas saber 11 7 Presentación La Ley le confiere al Instituto Colombiano para. Original Language Title: LEY de It is the responsibility of the Ministry of Education with the support of ICFES conducting assessments in this Law. La ley no prevé expresamente el cobro de matrícula extraordinaria, -SABER PRO- es uno de los exámenes previstos en la Ley de El calendario de exámenes puede ser consultado en el sitio web
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Cultural diversities and Education in Science Dissemination level: Science in Society Funding scheme: Collaborative project Deliverable N: Month 21 Actual submission date: Quantitative and qualitative analysis may contribute to the comprehension of such complexity from a historical, legal and above all dynamic point of view of educational policies and the management of the same in the XXth century in Colombia.
As is well pointed out by Lerma: During the first half of the XXth century in Colombia, the education has been characterized by the low rate of schooling, the lack of teachers and their limited or non existent preparation, a high rate of analphabetism, the scarce investment and priority in the different governments, the influence of the catholic church Although the constitutional reform of guarantees the liberty of doctrine and allows the secularization in education, it is marked by the influence that the church will have until the end of the eighties decade and beginning of the ninetiesthe preponderance of private education Fundamentally high school and the oscillation between the policies and reforms of decentralized and centralized education.
After years of conservative postures in the Colombian constitution, the new political text ofat least on paper, modeled some of the inclusive and participatory democratic needs that Colombian s required. The constituent National Assembly of 91 framed the route for participatory processes like the political practice of legitimization of democracy in Colombia, said practice opened the road and mechanisms for participation, among others the management and participation of educational matters in the relevant communities Education sector and productive sector, among others.
All of them, according to their competence, will participate in the design, execution and evaluation of the Institutional Education Project and in the good progress of the respective educational establishment. Article 68 Law of These extensive ideas of education from the constituent, tried to democratize the school in such a way that the general education law Law of among other aspects, established the bases for decentralization 2 of formal education in the country 3 through the formation of the PEI Institutional Education Project.
Introduced in the education debate the respect for human rights, the international humanitarian right, the recognition ideological, religious and political diversity and pluralisms a fundamental base of the formation of citizens. The Institutional Education Project PEI is the fundamental strategy, organized by the Law ofto favor the transformation of institutions as axes of development and improvement of the quality of education. The education project as a human and institutional development project is a permanent process of collective construction that leads to the growth and scholar and social development of the educational communities Decree of The mechanisms of representation and participation in school are left exposed with the formulation of governmental school organisms that decentralize the power of the managerial and the teachers in the educational institutions, expressing the central idea of the 91 constituent in the formation of new citizens.
Every person has a right for education. The education should be without cost, at least concerning elementary and fundamental education. Elementary education is obligatory. Technical and professional education should be generalized; the access to superior studies will be equal for all, in function to the respective merits. The object of education will be the complete development of human personality and the strengthening of the respect for human rights and fundamental liberties; it will favor the comprehension, the 2 A decentralized scheme implies the existence of a sectorial differentiated organization, in which each level of government national, departmental, district and towns have the competences and responsibilities concurring and complementary with education; meaning that authorities of each territorial entity should carry out their functions in a coordinated manner with that of other levels of the government.
Source DANE 3 In Colombia the process of decentralization has been oriented towards the turn n of competences related with the management of resources and personnel to the different levels of government. The administration decentralization has tried to be carried out, which contemplates the transference of authority, responsibility and resources.
Parents will have the preferential right to choosing the type of education that will be given to their children. To accomplish the integral formation of the pupil, each educational establishment should elaborate and propose a practice in the Institutional education project, in which they should specify, among other aspects, the principles and goals of the establishment, the available and necessary teaching staff and didactic resources, the pedagogic strategy, the regulations for teachers and student and the management system, all of this directed towards the fulfilling of the present legal dispositions and their laws Article 73 Law From the constitution of the funds for education are public and come from the state.
The definition of the mechanisms to determine the sums of the transfers and the local management are from then on a priority for the Ministry of Education MEN and the Department of National Planning DPNthe Law 60 of allowed the assignation of resources for education in territorial entities and the General Education Law Law of allowed the reorganization of the educational sector and the transfer of funds to regions, expanding the National Education System s objectives from basic education, middle education to the education of adults and the education of population with special education needs.
The law of established the organization system of formal education in the current educational system in the following way: Preschool education covers three year, one of which is mandatory; elementary, five, basic high school, four and middle education, two. The schools should formulate a Institutional education Project PEI in an independent form, flexible in the formulation of the curriculum and looking for autonomy, experimentation and institutional innovation Taken from and adapted from: Formal education is that which moves forward in the approved educational establishments, with curriculum sequences in evolution and conducing to the graduation and title in the established school cycles in Colombia: For the case of 4 7.
In conformation with the article 67 of the Political Constitution, defines and develops the organization and the provision of forma education in their preschool, basic elementary and high school and middle, informal and formal levels, directed towards children and youth in school ages, adults, peasants, ethnic groups, people with physical, sensorial and psychic limitations with exceptional capabilities and people that require social rehabilitation.
Law of February 8 of Apart from the National Constitution ofin the last 20 years, a series of legal devices have been promulgated, these are pertinent to the educational sector and support the structure of the legal frame in Colombian education. The law 30 of December organizes the superior education of the country, in its articulate it fundaments the educational policy confronted with superior education in Colombia.
Superior education is a permanent process that enables the development of a human s potentials in an integral fashion; it is carried out after middle or high school education and has as its main objective the full development of the students and their academic or professional formation. It is a cultural public service, inherent to the social purpose of the state en conformance with the Political Constitution of Colombia, guarantees the university autonomy and watches after the quality of the educational service through the exercise of supreme inspection and vigilance of the superior education.
Superior education, without prejudice of the specific goals of each field of knowledge, will wake in the pupils a reflexive spirit, oriented towards the accomplishment of personal autonomy, in a frame of liberty, mentality and ideological pluralism that keeps in min the know-how of the universities and in particular of the existent cultural forms in the country. This is why the superior education will be developed in a framework of freedom of teaching, of learning, of investigation and freedom of lecture.
Finally the accessibility of superior education will correspond to those who show to posses the required capacities and fulfill the academic conditions required in each case. Articles 1,2,3,4 and 5 Law 30 of Apart from law 30, the decree of 98 decree of February 11, regulates the creation of undergraduate and graduate academic educational programs in the country, establishing the nomenclature of the corresponding educational titles, and in the same way the law of organizes the public 8.
The decree of disposes, defines and organizes the guidelines of the different kinds of graduate degrees specialization, master degree and doctorate that may be offered on behalf of the superior educational institutions and the Decree of defines the objectives, guidelines and quality criteria with which the information reported to the information system of superior education of MEN, should count with.
Finally another group of decrees attend evaluation need of the different levels with the educational system, la the resolution of that defines the evaluation of teachers and institution at a state level, and the decree of that involves the evaluation of the learning s and the promotions of students in different levels of the preschool education system, basic elementary, basic high school and vocational average.
According to the previous statement, it is very important to plan and developed the topic of primary infancy in articulation with the ICBF, the health and cultural secretaries for the recreational topics. Entities in charge of the administration of the educational sector Source: DANE Direction of regulation, planning, standardization and normalization In Colombia as well as other countries in Latin America, quality is understood based indicators of coverage, efficiency and educational quality.
The coverage of the service is principally given in econometric indicators. In these five levels and according to its pertinence, it is involved with special education and the education for labor. In these years we conceived a more integrated system. The ministry who had traditionally placed the focus of their attention on basic and middle education Primary and middle school, in conventional language assumed the orientation of inicial education directly from 0 to 5 years of age formulating an integral policy that articulates protection, nutrition and education.
Additionally it retook the direct management of the superior educational policy that until was found in the ICFES. In the last few years the orientation and regulation of education for labor was integrated into the ministry. Each one of these subsystems, with its different ways of operating, has contributed to the redefinition of the strategies that guide the sector.
Educational Revolution actions and lessons P 15 Structure of the Colombian formal educational system Source: UNESCO-IBE The National Ministry of Education is the organ in charge of the regulatin formal education in the country, only the superior education institutions in virtue with what is recorded in the constitution and the law 30, enjoy autonomy in their processes.
Other entities normally are small or growing and are dedicated to the training in arts and specific trades; the validation of elementary and high school education; the formation of personnel for the productive sector in goods and services and the strengthening of companies, micro companies and diverse areas of the state.
It s regulation on behalf of the ministry is a lot less than in formal education. The four levels of organization in formal leey Preschool, basic, middle and superior are constituted in stages of the educational processes with outlined objectives that indicate the grades of schooling reached within the system.
In Colombia the cycles are assumed like a group of schooling grades within the educational levels according to chronological ages and the development within each grade in oey school year. In the current pedagogic debate the organization of school cycles in general terms are being modified at a district level, but for the entire country these policies have not ye transcended.
In the case of preschool, 3 grades exist Pre kinder, icfee and transition being free of cost and obligatory on behalf of the state the last one of the three. Basic education is obligatory and without cost, it corresponds to 9 grades with two cycles: Some institutions are sheltered in this cycle by the Decree of and have restructured a particular type of formation referred to normal superior school whose function is to form teachers and student teachers.
Finally, superior education is governed by the ICFES in Colombia and under the icfse of the law 30, which regulates the permanent process of professional, technical or technological formation. The Technical, professional, technological school and universities are the ones in charge of the superior formation 134 the country.
Some of these institutions and in agreement with what the law stipulates, offer formation programs at a graduate level of specializations, master, doctorates and post doctorates, and for these the must be recognized educational institutions, accredited by entities like the ICFES, CESU and CAN, among others.
This indicates that the inequality in Colombia is intensified when it comes to genera differences and age differences like in the case shown above. The national and international reports agree that this low assistance rate is due partly because of the lack of educational offer near the residency sectors of these minors and the lack of importance that their guardians find in taking them to the educational or attention centers, at least in the first few years of life BID As lsy observed in the following graphs, the number of beneficiaries of the diverse attention programs for PRIMARY infancy varies depending on the regions, age and political administration conditions of each region, in the case of Casanare there icfees no consolidated dated we can count on in the information systems, concerning these 124.
Certified registry of the secretaries of education SINEB [ ] For basic and middle education the situation is different, the strong international mediation and the recent national preoccupation for the 3124 has helped widen the national and departmental education system s coverage as a policy from MEN.
The idea of making education universal and achieving the coverage to defeat analphabetism implies diminishing the internal differences in the country, avoiding the put off of groups and regions and diminishing the lack of access of people with the greatest poverty to the educational system.
Certified registration of the secreatries of education MEN-National System of basic educational infromation- Single Directory of educational establishments DUE Clarifies that in the year the fusion process between educational establishments in the country is started.
Certified registration of the secretaries of education The increments of the 132 decades in the registries of private universities is a consequence of the elevated flexibility in the in the sector, concerning schedules, registrations and curriculum diversity. For example in the Magdalena department 13 institutions of superior education exist, concentrated in Santa Marta that register the Yopal, generating a second hand centralization of the educational processes. These entities are interested in iicfes generation of new knowledge with the intention of influencing the learning processes for the different levels of basic, middle and superior education in the country.
In the same way, there has been insistence in the need to deepen the cognitive processes, cultural diversity, technological mediations, scientific concepts, environmental education, scientific formation, the language of sciences and it s pedagogic mediation, school texts, evaluations, curriculums, among other aspects related with the teaching and learning of science.
¿Qué conceptos básicos debe tener presentes?
What we can see in a general manner in these examinations is the marked differences of its results in the interior of the lsy MEN, Ministry of National Education 8 ICFES is the Colombian institute for the fostering of superior education.
This institution has assumed the role of national education evaluation both internal and the knowledge examinations that are applied to every educational level as well as international examinations are under its jurisdiction.
Keeping proportions, in the international examinations a similar phenomenon is seen. Colombia obtained an average of in the PISA 12 examinations for the science area, which is statistical inferior in the same year to the average of OCDE countries, which is points.
It calls our attention that despite the fact that there are no significant genera differences in the examinations like PISA in all of the ddl Colombia evidences one of the greatest breaches in general, a point difference from boys to girls which is way above countries like USA and Lichtenstein.
This data contrasts with some nations that differently to Leh and the United States evidence results that favor girls; Jordan, Albania, Dubai, Qatar and Argentina in South America are an example of this. Other countries with significant differences in favor of girls are Chile and Mexico in Latin America.
The focus points and evaluative purposes are different: It is interesting that strata 3 are balanced in the national average. Other important differences between these three examinations is that the TMSS allows the analysis of the science and math curriculums and their reaches, contents and organization, while the PISA tries to give account of the capabilities to extrapolate knowledge within different contexts and applying knowledge.
In the case of the SERCE, it is a very important tool for the characterization of the educational systems and their coverage, rates, conditions of the schools in the same way that TIMSS allows the following of the curriculum in science but at a different level, it has concerns itself with conceptual domains icces the cognitive processes that are immerse in the curriculums of the participating countries.
In every case the icves also allow the obtainment of information of the associated aspects of scientific learning in students, teacher and institutions. In students it allows to look into their home conditions, their family environment and socio-cultural dynamics and interactions in classroom perceptions and level of satisfaction concerning the educational institutions, classmates and teachers, as well as attitudes, perceptions and values for science; and the use of time in and outside of school.
Colombia has participated in several of them In the first presentation the balance for Colombia is not very encouraging. Singapore, Korea, Japan, Hong Kong and Belgium occupy the first five spots amongst 41 countries that presented the examinations, fel Iran, Kuwait, Colombia and South Africa occupy the last four spots, respectively. Performance of the different countries in the TIMSS for Natural Sciences 13 In countries participated, their students from seventh and eighth grade were evaluated, this information is the base for the latter comparison of eighth grade students in the country.
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1234 Brooking s papers on Education Policy. C In the graph above we can observe that children of eighth grade in Singapore have a two year advance in scientific performance compared with the United States, while children in eighth grade in Colombia have a scientific performance equivalent to 7 courses under that of the children in Singapore that study in the same grade level.
This data shows that the differences between countries are not marginal, but very significant. Some very general results in science are significantly inferior to the rest of the countries that participated.