the basic reference works are demotische grammatik by wilhelm spiegelberg edel elmar altgyptische grammatik 2 vols rome pp analecta. 15cd.2 Spiegelberg, Grammatik, is the basic reference grammar available for ) noted by Elmar Edel, Altgyptische Grammatik, Vol. Wagner, Die lexikalischen und grammatikalischen Aramaismen im ), Elmar Edel, Altgyptische Grammatik (AnOr 34, 39;.

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Post on Nov 16 views. Printed in the United States of America. Diamond organized both the conversion of thetypewritten manuscript into its electronic form and the ini-tial proofreading. Alexandra Witsell grmmatik with the finalscanning. The final proofreading, formatting, and creationof special characters were completed by Katie L.

Hugheswithout whose aid and encouragementit grmmatik never have grammayik. Negative Past, Second Tense BiOr Bibliotheca Orientalis, Leiden CdE Chronique dgypte, Brussels HO Jaroslav erny and Alan H.

Gardiner, Hieratic Ostraca, Vol. At the University Press for the Griffith Institute, Parker, Durative Tenses Richard A. Parker, The Durative Tenses in P. RdE Revue dgyptologie, Paris and Edeo Historical and Bio-graphical 6 vols.

Universityof Chicago Press, Serapis Serapis, Student forum on the ancient world, Chicago Williams, Verbal Forms Ronald J. Wilson, Coptic Future Tenses: Janua Linguarum, Series Practica No.

It gives me edep pleasure to acknowledge themembers of my committee, George R. Wente, who made numerous suggestions and corrections, during both thewriting of the dissertation and its expansion and revision into the present form. Their valu-able assistance has added greatly to the usefulness of this study. Parker alsomade several helpful comments after reading the revised manuscript.

Titelbaum for their expert editing and Pamela J. Howe for careful preparation of the typescript. The stage of the language gra,matik Demotic has affinities with both LateEgyptian, its predecessor, and Coptic, its successor. The Demotic script isthe most cursive one developed by the Egyptians. It was first used under Psammetichus I ca. By the end of that dynasty, Demotic hadbecome the official script for business and everyday affairs. By the Ptolemaic period De-motic was also the script in which literary compositions were written.

The latest Demoticinscription, from Philae, dates from the middle of the fifth century of our era. This thou-sand-year span during which Demotic was used is divisible into three time periods: Grajmatik Persian, Ptolemaic, and Roman.

The following analysis of the Demotic verbal system is intended to update the workdone by previous generations of Demoticists, especially Spiegelberg.

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The result is the re-definition of the basic paradigms, the forms constituting these different paradigms, themeaning of each, and the syntactic usages of each of the various constructions. Since manyof the new insights have come from the study of Coptic, the original study from which thepresent work stems4 consisted of an analysis of the verbal system of two late Alrgyptische pe-riod texts, whose grammar is often quite close to that of Coptic.

These two long texts pro-vided examples of all the different forms used in Demotic, and their use precluded gener-alizing from the idiosyncracies of any one scribe. Carl Winters Universittsbuchhandlung, par. Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, par. Frantiek Lexa, Gram-maire dmotique 7 vols.

Edition dauteur, [] includes a large repertory of examples,but his analysis is much less accurate than Altgytpische. Istituto Editoriale Altgypische, ]intended as ateaching grammar, is largely limited to Ptolemaic examples see pp.


Librairie Orientaliste Paul Geuthner, is limited to that one textand contains many misconceptions. Such early works as Henri Brugsch, Grammaire dmotique Berlin: Altgyptisdhe, Libraire-Editeur, are now, for the most part, obsolete. Unfortunately, Bre-scianis grammar does not incorporate ekmar discoveries.

Johnson, Demotic Verbs and Dialects Ph. Most commonly the spellsgive instructions for divinations, especially by lamp or oil, although other media are alsoincluded, such as the sun, dreams.

Some of the spells are intended to provide relief fromphysical discomforts, for example, stings, dog bites, a bone caught in the throat; others toproduce ill effect in other people, for example, fever, blindness, death.

Many of the spellsinvolve erotica and are intended to make one person love another. Various drugs are alsodescribed. The words glossed include many Egyptian words as well as the namesof various foreign gods and abracadabra words. In addition, almost a hundred Egyptianwords are written in cipher, the cipher indicating both consonants and vowels.

Mythus was chosen as the second text because, like Magical, it was discovered in The-bes, probably in that group of papyri found with Magical;9 it seems to date from the secondcentury of our era;10 and it is a long literary narrative 23 columns involving both mascu-line and feminine characters. Thus, it contains both forms and paradigm examples whichsupplement those found altgyptiscye Magical.

The beginning and altgypyische of the tale are lost, butat the beginning of the preserved altgjptische Thoth is face to face with Tefnut and is attempting tocarry out his mission. His arguments consist of various stories with animal characters. Atleast one of these, the story of the lion altgyprische the mouse, is also found in Aesops fables, al- 5 Published by F. It was found in Thebes together with several other papyri, mostly Greek magical texts ibid.

This gammatik is strengthened by the fact that the verso of Mythus contains Greek and De-motic magical texts similar to those of Magical. With the aid of a summer Grant-in-Aid from the AmericanCouncil of Learned Societies, the author has recently had the opportunity to study the six columns which arewholly or largely Demotic.

Therefore, the forms and usages found on the verso of Mythus will be included under thegeneral heading of Magical.

This re-use implies that its original function had been lost. Thus Mythus shouldprobably be dated several generations before Magical. Paleographically it is between Magical and P. Insinger, from the first century of our era. Thus Mythus should probably be dated to the second century of ourera, as Spiegelberg Mythus, p. Finally Tefnut does return toEgypt, but the papyrus breaks off at this point, and the end of the tale is unknown.

The forms and constructions identified in these two texts have here been supplementedwith the forms and constructions found in two Ptolemaic period texts, Setne Khaemwast I12and The Instructions o f Onchsheshonqy,13 and conclusions based on the Roman periodtexts have been tested against the Ptolemaic material.

Grammatical differences had beennoted between Mythus and Magical, Magical being more similar to Coptic than wasMythus. In addition, this comparisonserves as a good setting for the presentation of the Demotic verbal forms within their his-torical perspective, showing how the verbal system changed through time from Late Egyp-tian, or Middle Egyptian if a straight line of development is seen, through Demotic to Cop-tic.


This presentation helps explain some earlier and later forms previously not fully under-stood. Of the two Ptolemaic texts chosen, Setne was used by Spiegelberg15 as the basis for hisanalysis and presentation of Demotic grammar, while Onchsheshonqy is a relatively re-cent publication and has never been the subject of an adequate grammatical study. Setnecannot be dated precisely within the Ptolemaic period. The year 15 date at the end of thelast page completely rules out only Ptolemy VII.

Paleographically it is neither early Ptole-maic nor late Ptolemaic.

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It is the story of Setne Khaemwast, who went to the tomb ofNaneferkaptah, the son of Pharaoh Mer-neb-Ptah, to get a grammatk book. Naneferkaptah,his wife Altgjptische, and her son Merib refused to give it up, and Ahure told Setne how they allfinally drowned while Naneferkaptah was searching for the book.

Setne was forced to callhis brother to his rescue when he played draughts with Naneferkaptah for custody of thebook, and lost. When Setne did get the book, Pharaoh ordered him to return it, but Setnerefused. Soon he was seduced by Tabubu, who persuaded him to give her all his property,to disinherit all his children, and, eventually, to have them killed for her.

But Setne grmamatik 12 Published by F. Griffith, Stories of the High Priests of Memphis.

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At the Clarendon Press, The Grammahik of the British Museum, This latterpractice was still predominant in Mythus, where the conjugated sdm. But in Magical, although the suffix conjugation was still used, in many forms itwas supplemented or replaced by the conjugation of the periphrastic verb r to do, the origin of the corre-sponding Coptic auxiliaries. Magical contains some archaisms, but, as Griffith and Thompson noted, It isdifficult to believe that any part of the work in its present redaction is more than a century or two older thanthe papyrus itself Magical I The altgyptisce similarity of Magical to Coptic is important because, as Edger-ton noted, Religious or magical texts may easily perpetuate isolated obsolete words and forms; but they donot suddenly introduce multitudes of new forms and new ways of writing several generations before theseappear in everyday life William F.

On paleographic grounds, the editor of the British Museum copy of Onchsheshonqyhas dated it to the late Ptolemaic period, while suggesting that the original of which this isa copy was probably written during the Late Period. When he realized that he would never be freed, he asked for pa-pyrus and a palette that he might be able to write a book of instructions for his son. Instead,he was brought only the palette and told to write on sherds of the jars in which wine hadbeen brought to him.

Pages 6 through 28 are the maxims which Onchsheshonqy thenwrote.

The style of the maxims is quite complex, but the lines are arranged haphazardly. The four lines of P. Cairo parallel sections of the British Museum copy ofOnchsheshonqy. Paleographically the Cairo copy seems to be slightly earlier than theBritish Museum copy.