Diamantes y pedernales. Front Cover. José María Arguedas. Editorial Horizonte, – Short stories, Peruvian – pages. Diamantes y pedernales. Front Cover. José María Arguedas. Alianza Editorial, – Short Bibliographic information. QR code for Diamantes y pedernales. Preceded by, Diamantes y pedernales (). Followed by, El Sexto (). Deep Rivers (Spanish: Los ríos profundos) is the third novel by Peruvian writer José María Arguedas.

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Since then, critical interest in the work of Arguedas has grown, and the book has been translated into several languages. According to critics, this novel marked the beginning of the current neo-indigenista movement, which presented, for the first time, a reading of indigenous diamxntes from a closer perspective.

Most critics agree that this novel is one of Arguedas’ masterpieces. The title of the work ‘Uku Mayu’ in Quechua alludes to the depth of the Andean rivers, which rise in diamantfs top of the Andes. It also relates to the solid and ancestral roots of Andean culture, peedernales, according to Arguedas, are the true national identity of Peru.

The last years of the s were very fertile for Arguedas’ literary production. The book appeared when Indigenismo was in full swing in Peru.

Education Minister at the time, Luis E. Moreover, with the publication of Deep Rivers, the growing reception to Arguedas’ work began, both in Peru and throughout the continent. The genesis of the novel was agruedas story ‘Warma kuyay” part of the collection of short stories entitled ‘Water’, published inone of whose characters is the child Ernesto. This Ernesto is unmistakably the same as the Deep Rivers character. Diamanhes text of Arguedas which was published in in the form of autobiography Las Moradas, vol.

In Arguedas wrote the essay ‘The novel and the problem of literary expression in Peru’ La novela y el diwmantes de la expresion literaria en el Peruin which he announced the existence of the novel project. The push to complete the novel emerged years later inwhile conducting ethnographic fieldwork in the Mantaro Valley. He then worked hard to its completion. Some texts of ethnographic study were attached to the story, such as the etymological explanation of ‘zumbayllu’ or magical spinning top.

The novel describes the maturation process of Ernesto, a year-old who must confront the injustices of the adult world that he becomes a part of, and who is required to take sides.

The story begins in Cuzco, where Ernesto and his father Gabriel arrive.


Gabriel, an itinerant lawyer, is looking for a rich relative called ‘El Viejo’ the old onein order to ask for work and shelter. But he does not succeed. He then recommences his wanderings through many cities and villages of southern Peru. In Abancay, Ernesto is enrolled as a boarder at a religious school while his father continues his travels in search of work.


Ernesto then has to live with the boarding students who are a microcosm of Peruvian society and where cruel and violent behaviour is the norm.

Later, outside the boundaries of the school, a group of chicheras mutiny, demanding the distribution of salt, and a mass of Indian peasants enter the city to ask for a mass for the victims of epidemic typhus. This pushes Ernesto into a profound awareness: This completes a phase of the learning process. The novel ends when Ernesto leaves Abancay and goes to a ranch owned by “El Viejo”, situated in the valley of the Apurimac, awaiting the return of his father.

This novel fully develops the lyrical potentialities that lay in Arguedas’ prose from the beginning. Offering the story from the perspective of an introverted teenage character, to some extent autobiographical, this narrative of internal examination presents however, from its first line, a distressing reflection on reality, on the nature of the Andean world and its relations with westernized sectors.

One of the merits of Deep Rivers is its achievement of a high degree of consistency between the two facets of the text. With regard to the revelation of the meaning of the Indian reality, Deep Rivers repeats certain dimensions of Yawar Fiesta, Arguedas’s previous novel: The chapters recounting the revolt of the chicheras and settlers insist on showing that hidden capacity.

Diamantes Y Pedernales

Arguedas liked to point out that the action of the settlers, although treated in the novel as magical motivations, foreshadowed arguuedas peasant uprisings that occurred in reality a few years later. The subjective side of Deep Rivers is focused on the efforts of the protagonist to understand the world around him, and to place himself within it as a living whole.

Such a project is in extreme conflict: His ideal maeia integration, a most passionate one, as it originates in his fragmented interiority, is doomed to failure. To participate in the world is not to live in harmony; it is exactly the opposite, to internalize the conflicts of reality.

This is the hard lesson that Deep Rivers chronicles. On the other hand, in order to capture the double movement of convergence and dispersion, or unity and disharmony, this novel builds a dense and beautiful symbolic system that creatively retells certain indigenous myths and gives them fresh life.

In this respect the novel functions as a dazzling lyrical operation.


Deep Rivers is not the most important work of Arguedas; it is however, without a doubt, raguedas most beautiful and perfect. Vargas Llosa says of it:. That persuasive power, without which no fiction can live, endows the story before the reader not pass the test of time.

Vargas Llosa mariw the emotional impact reading Deep Rivers left him, which unambiguously qualifies it as a masterpiece. Vargas Llosa also highlights Arguedas mastery of the Spanish language in this novel to reach a style of great artistic effectiveness. It is a functional and flexible Spanish, which brings to light the different shades of a plurality of issues, people and peculiarities of the world exposed in the work.

Arguedas, a bilingual writer, succeeds in “quechuization” of Spanish: This does not happen often, but as often as needed to make the reader see that these are pdernales cultures with two different languages.

Four round holes, like eyes, emanated from the sphere.

These holes produce the typical buzzing sound when spun, which give the object its name. There pedernakes also a more powerful type of zumbayllu made from a deformed object but without being round winku and with the quality of sorcery argurdas. For Ernesto, the zumbayllu is the ideal instrument for capturing the interplay between objects. As such, its functions are varied, but it is first used to send messages to distant places. Ernesto believes that his voice can joes the ears of his absent father by chanting the zumbayllu.

It is also a pacifying object, a symbol of restoring order, as in the episode where Ernesto dia,antes his zumbayllu to Anauco. But it is also a purifying element of negative spaces, and it is under that belief that Ernesto buries his zumbayllu in the backyard of the toilets, in the same place where older joee sexually abused a mentally disabled woman.

The zumbayllu purifies the land and flowers start to sprout, which Ernesto then decides to place in the woman’s tomb. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Deep Rivers First edition. Retrieved from ” https: Pages to import images to Wikidata Articles containing Spanish-language text All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from December Views Read Edit View history.

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