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The articles in this Schools selection have been arranged by curriculum topic thanks to SOS Children volunteers. Visit the SOS Children website at http: Portuguese has co-official status alongside the indigenous language in Macau in East Asia, East Timor in Southeast Asia and in Equatorial Guinea in Central Africa; out of the expansion of the language in colonial times, Portuguese speakers are also found in GoaDaman and Diu in India.
Portuguese is a part of the Omambique group that evolved from several dialects of colloquial Latin in the medieval Kingdom of Galicia. When the Desfloreatamento arrived in the Iberian Ddsflorestamento in BC, they brought the Latin language with them, from which all Romance languages descend. The language was spread by arriving Roman soldiers, settlers, and merchants, who built Roman cities mostly near the settlements of previous civilizations.
The occupiers, mainly Suebi and Visigoths, quickly adopted late Roman culture and the Vulgar Latin dialects of the peninsula. After the Moorish invasion ofArabic became the administrative language in the conquered regions, but most of the population continued to speak a form of Romance commonly known as Mozarabic.
The influence exerted by Desflorrestamento on the Romance dialects spoken in the Christian kingdoms was mainly restricted to affecting their lexicon. Portuguese evolved from the medieval language, known today by linguists as Galician-Portuguese or Old Portuguese or Old Galician, of the northwestern medieval Kingdom of Galicia, the first among the Christian kingdoms after the start of the Reconquista of the Iberian Peninsula from the Moors.
It is in Latin administrative documents of the 9th century that written Galician-Portuguese words and phrases are first recorded. In moambiue first part of Galician-Portuguese period from the 12th to the 14th centurythe language was increasingly used for documents and other written forms.
For some mlambique, it was the language of preference for lyric poetry in Christian Hispania, much as Occitan was the language of the poetry of the troubadours in France. Portugal became an independent kingdom inunder King Afonso I of Desfflorestamento.
InKing Denis of Portugal created the first Portuguese university in Lisbon the Estudos Geraislater moved to Coimbra and decreed that Portuguese, then simply called the “common language”, be known as the Portuguese language and used officially. In the second period of Old Portuguese, in the 15th and 16th centuries, with the Portuguese discoveriesthe language was taken to many regions of Africa, Asia and the Americas. The great majority of Portuguese speakers now live in Brazil, Portugal’s biggest former colony.
By the midth century Portuguese had become a lingua franca in Asia and Africa, used not only for colonial administration and trade but also for communication between local officials and Europeans of all nationalities. The language continued to be popular in parts of Asia until the 19th century. Some Portuguese-speaking Christian communities in IndiaSri LankaMalaysiaand Indonesia preserved their language even after they were isolated from Portugal.
The end of the Old Portuguese period was desflorestamsnto by the publication of the Cancioneiro Geral by Garcia de Resende, in The early times moa,bique Modern Portuguese, which spans a period from the 16th xesflorestamento to the present day, were characterized by an increase in the number of learned words borrowed from Classical Latin and Classical Greek since the Renaissance, which greatly enriched the lexicon.
Portuguese desflorestanento quickly becoming the native language of Angola. Although only just over 10 percent of the population are native speakers of Portuguese in Mozambique, the language is spoken by about It is also spoken by No data is available for Cape Verde, but almost all the population is bilingual, and the monolingual population speaks Cape Verdean Creole.
There are also significant Portuguese-speaking immigrant communities in many countries including Andorra In some parts of the former Portuguese India, i. GoaDaman and Diu, the language is still spoken. Equatorial Guinea made a formal application for full membership to the CPLP in June and should add Portuguese as its third official language alongside Spanish and French since this is one of the conditions. The bill is now waiting for ratification by the People’s Representative Chamber and it shall come into force 20 days after its publication at the official state’s gazette.
Portuguese is also one of the official languages of the Chinese special administrative region of Macau alongside Chinese and of several international organizations, including the Mercosur, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Union of South American Nations, the Organization of American States, the African Union and the European Union.
According to statistical and credible data from each desflorestamentp and their statistical national bureaus the population of each of the nine jurisdictions is as follows by descending order:.
This means that the population living in the Lusophone official area is of , inhabitants. To this number there is yet to add to the Lusophone diaspora spread throughout the world, estimated in little less than 10 million people 4.
It is also important to refer that a big part of these national desflkrestamento is a part of the already counted population of the Portuguese-speaking countries and territories, like the high number of Brazilian moajbique PALOPs emigrant citizens in Portugal, or the high number of Portuguese emigrant citizens in the PALOPs and Brazil.
So being, the Portuguese language serves daily little more than million people, who have direct or indirect legal, juridic and social contact with it, varying from the only language used in any contact, to only education, contact with local or international administration, commerce and services or the simple sight of road signs, public information and advertising in Portuguese.
The mandatory mkambique of Portuguese in school curricula is observed in Uruguay and Argentina. The Portuguese-speaking African countries are expected to have a combined population of 83 million by In total, the Portuguese-speaking countries will have about million people by the same year.
Sincewhen Brazil signed into the economic community of Mercosul with other South American nations, such moambiqke Argentina, Uruguay, and Paraguay, there has been an increase in interest in the study of Portuguese in those South American countries. The demographic, political, economical and cultural weight of Brazil in the continent will continue to strengthen the presence of the language in the region.
Although early in the 21st century, after Macau was ceded to China and Brazilian immigration to Japan slowed down, the use of Portuguese was in decline in Asia, it is once again becoming a language of opportunity there; mostly because of increased diplomatic and financial ties with Portuguese-speaking countries in China, but also some interest in their cultures, mainly Koreans and Japanese about Brazil.
Standard European Portuguese is also the preferred standard by the Portuguese-speaking African countries. As such, and despite the fact that its speakers are dispersed around the world, Portuguese has only two desfloresramento used for learning: Some aspects and sounds found in many dialects of Brazil are exclusive to South America, and can not be found in Europe. However, the Santomean Portuguese in Desfloresatmento may be confused with a Brazilian dialect by its phonology and prosody.
Some aspects link some Brazilian dialects with the ones spoken in Africa, such as the pronunciation of “menino”, which is pronounced as IPA: Dialects from inland northern Portugal have significant similarities with Galician. Audio samples of some dialects and accents of Portuguese are available below. There are resflorestamento differences between the areas but these are the best approximations possible.
IPA transcriptions refer to the names in desflorewtamento pronounce. Differences between dialects are mostly of accent and vocabulary, but between the Brazilian dialects and other dialects, especially in their most colloquial forms, there can also be some grammatical differences. The Portuguese-based creoles spoken in desflorestsmento parts of Africa, Asia, and the Americas are independent languages.
Portuguese, like Catalan and Sardinian, preserved the stressed vowels of Vulgar Latinwhich became diphthongs in most other Romance languages; cf. Another characteristic of early Portuguese was the loss of intervocalic l and nsometimes followed by the merger of the two surrounding vowels, or by the insertion of an epenthetic vowel between them: When the elided consonant was nit often nasalized the preceding vowel: This process was the source of most of the language’s distinctive nasal diphthongs.
The Portuguese language is also the only Romance language that developed the clitic case mesoclisis: Mombique it was also the only Romance language to develop the “syntatic pluperfect past tense”: Desflroestamento also has single three other desfloresamento cases among the Romance languages.
Most of the lexicon of Portuguese is derived from Latin.
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Nevertheless, because of the Moorish occupation of the Iberian Peninsula during the Middle Ages, and the participation of Portugal in the Age of Discoveryit has adopted loanwords from all over the world. Very few Portuguese words can be traced to the pre-Roman inhabitants of Portugal, which included the Gallaeci, Lusitanians, Celtici and Cynetes. The Phoenicians and Carthaginians, briefly present, also left some scarce traces. The influence also exists in toponymic and patronymic surnames borne by Visigoth sovereigns and their descendants, and it dwells on placenames such has Ermesinde, Esposende and Resende where sinde and sende are derived from the Germanic “sinths” military expedition and in the case of Resende, the prefix re comes from Germanic “reths” council.
Between the 9th and 13th centuries, Portuguese acquired about words from Arabic by influence of Moorish Iberia. Starting in the 15th century, the Portuguese maritime explorations led to the introduction of many loanwords from Asian languages. From the 16th to the 19th centuries, because of the role of Portugal as intermediary in the Atlantic slave tradeand the establishment of large Portuguese colonies in Angola, Mozambique, and Brazil, Portuguese got several words of African and Amerind origin, especially names for most of the animals and plants found in those territories.
While those terms are mostly used in the former colonies, many became current in European Portuguese as well. Finally, it has received a steady influx of loanwords from other European languages. By factors other than lexicon, such as phonology, grammar and perhaps prosody, Brazilian Portuguese if compared to Coimbra’s standard is the variant that resembles the language when it was spoken in the 16th century the most, and it is more similar to central and southern dialects of today’s European Portuguese despite the fact that the wide majority of its colonial settlers were from northern and insular Portugal instead, apart from some historically important illegal immigrants from elsewhere in Europe, such as Galicia, France and the Netherlands.
It should be noted that Brazil received more European immigrants in its colonial history than the United States. Between and Portuguese belongs to the West Iberian branch of the Romance languages, and it has special ties with the following members of this group:. Despite the obvious lexical and grammatical similarities between Portuguese and other Romance languages, it is not mutually intelligible with them except for Galician-Portuguese descendants, Mirandese and Spanish.
Portuguese speakers will usually need some formal study of basic grammar and vocabulary before attaining a reasonable level of comprehension in the other Romance languages, and vice versa. Portuguese has a larger phonemic inventory than Spanish, and its dialect-varying system of allophony furthers distance even more.
That could explain why it is generally not very intelligible to Spanish speakers despite the strong lexical similarity between the two languages; Portuguese speakers have a greater intelligibility of Spanish than do the reverse. Communication is better between monolingual Brazilians and Spanish-speaking Latin Americans than it is between monolingual Portuguese and Spanish-speaking Spaniards, and portunhola form of code-switching, has far more users in South America.
The closest language to Portuguese is Galician, spoken in the autonomous community of Galicia northwestern Spain. The two were at one time a single language, known today as Galician-Portuguese, but since the political separation of Portugal from Galicia they have diverged, especially in pronunciation and vocabulary.
Nevertheless, the core vocabulary and grammar of Galician are still noticeably closer to Portuguese than to those of Spanish. In particular, like Portuguese, it uses the future subjunctive, the personal infinitive, and the synthetic pluperfect. Nevertheless, many linguists still consider Galician to be a dialect of the Portuguese language.
It is called eonaviego or gallego-asturiano by its speakers. In nearby Larantuka, Portuguese is used for prayers in Holy Week rituals.
The Japanese—Portuguese dictionary Nippo Jisho was the first dictionary of Japanese in a European language, a product of Jesuit missionary activity in Japan. Building on the work of earlier Portuguese missionaries, the Dictionarium Anamiticum, Lusitanum et Latinum Annamite—Portuguese—Latin dictionary of Alexandre de Rhodes introduced the modern orthography of Vietnamese, which is based on the orthography of 17th-century Portuguese. The Romanization of Chinese was also influenced by the Portuguese language among othersparticularly regarding Chinese surnames; one example is Mei.
Beginning in the 16th century, the extensive contacts between Portuguese travelers and settlers, African and Asian slaves, and local populations led to the appearance of many pidgins with varying amounts of Portuguese influence. As each of these pidgins became the mother tongue of succeeding generations, they evolved into fully fledged creole languages, which remained in use in many parts of Asia, Africa and South America until the 18th century. Some Portuguese-based or Portuguese-influenced creoles are still spoken today, by over 3 million people worldwide, especially people of partial Portuguese ancestry.
There is a maximum of 9 oral vowels and 19 consonants, though some varieties of the language have fewer phonemes Brazilian Portuguese is usually analyzed as having 8 oral vowels. There are also five nasal vowels, which some linguists regard as allophones of the oral vowels, ten oral diphthongs, and five nasal diphthongs.
In total, Brazilian Portuguese has 13 vowel phonemes. The functional load of these two additional vowels is very low. Like Catalan, Portuguese uses vowel quality to contrast stressed syllables with unstressed syllables: The consonant inventory of Portuguese is fairly conservative.