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Clasificación de las construcciones
Proyecto Viviendas de Emergencia, Parte 1: In Chile there is a gap that needs to be filled in order to have a positive impact upon emergencies, particularly in emergency houses EH In this study were evaluated the properties of a prefabricated prototype based on a “Structural Insulated Panel” 64mm thick SIP64built by two OSB panels bonded with a two component polyurethane adhesive to a high density expanded polystyrene core.
SIP64 was manufactured as a main element for construction of EH.
The thermal insulation was evaluated by NCh The FR was F15 class, minimum safety requirement for bearing vertical elements and non-supportive frame walls. As main products Manuals for Manufacturing, Installation, Technical Specifications and Regulations for EH were developed and are available online for free.
Proyecto Viviendas de Emergencia, Parte 1: Resistencia al fuego y aislación térmica
descaargar Emergency house; shelter; habitability; settlement; technical and normative standards for emergency houses; SIP panel; thermal insulation; fire resistance. Como principales productos fueron desarrollados: Shelter, is a kind of house that actually has no technical regulations to establish minimal comfort criteria as they do not depend from de Ministry of Housing but from Interior Ministry.
There are many examples of shelter in the world, even patented, but none is regulated by governments. For nearly 46 years, there has been an oguuc acceptance by the State of Chile to deliver this type of prefabricated homes, a temporary solution, which is supported in the absence of regulations, prioritizing quantity and fabricating and building speed over quality of the product, leaving behind concepts as basic and important to the healthy development of Chilean families as the housing wellness itself.
This housing wellness can be evaluated by various factors of habitability and safety. The idea of habitability responds to compliance with certain parameters dewcargar standards among which stand out: In recent years, Latin American countries have suffered from the constant housing deficit, which destroys the possibilities of the first property by the neediest populations.
Therefore, it is necessary to propagate studies, research ogucc information on industrialized housing construction techniques, such as wood frame Almeida et al. It presents a case study with descargat methods for the technical and financial validation of a proposal for thermal improvement, deacargar qualitative methods for the social validation of the involved actors. The results confirm a strategy that may contribute in the reduction of the consumption and developing attitudes able to direct towards the promotion of energy efficiency.
In this study the properties of a prefabricated panel prototype is evaluated based on Structural Insulated Panel SIP construction technology characterizing it as a basic element ddscargar emergency housing. It was necessary to define the factors of habitability and safety to be considered as a minimum for emergency housing: Thermal insulation, fire resistance and protection of structural components that are exposed to weathering are reported in this document.
As a result, the project addressed this issue with different private and public agencies MINVU; ONEMI, FOSIS to find a consensus regarding the minimal technical criteria this emergency house EH should match in the different country climatic zones and also how they should be installed on site after the occurrence of natural disasters that affect the population. These regulations are also applicable in case of emergency houses in social vulnerability. Based on this arrangements the project designed, fabricated, installed and evaluated prototypes in 5 different climatic zones of the country and after that provided technical guarantees of the quality of the EH that were tested.
This may serve as a model for other manufacturers in the private sphere as long as they respect the technical standards, which are particularly well resolved in timber construction due to Chilean experience and skills.
In this study were evaluated the properties of a prefabricated housing prototype with 64mm thick panel based construction technology known as “Structural Insulated Panel” SIP hereinafter SIP64which was built by two 9. This panel was manufactured in accordance with NCh It was our interest to evaluate the thermal insulation and fire resistance of the SIP64 panel. The Table 1 shows the requirements for dwellings. The heat to overcome the difference between the base temperature and the comfort temperature is supplied by the internal heat gains such as occupants, appliances, and lighting.
The act has established the conductive thermal transmittance U of the envelope of dwellings 70 for each thermal zone of Chile. The fire resistance of the panel corresponds to the F15 class, which meets the minimum safety requirements for supportive and non- supportive vertical elements walls.
In the upper and lower ends of the panel, polystyrene is trimmed to place sills, necessary joints for the construction system.
Likewise, in the side faces the polystyrene core carries two recesses along the entire length of the panel, allowing the insertion of the uprights to the junction between side panels Figure 1. The exterior finishing protection systems have been upgraded according to the climatic conditions in each zone.
In the north and center of country, the walls were protected with two hands of water-borne topcoat, plus the application of elastomeric stucco. In contrast, in the south, the walls are coated with aluzinc sheets and finished with a specially formulated acrylic paint for aluzinc.
This applies in this case for roof and walls. Minor modifications were made to the designs: Also in the north the rear access doors are higher, reach the floor Figure 4allowing better ventilation. In southern and colder areas they are only half of the wall, collaborating with improved thermal insulation.
Likewise in the south, the front terrace has been protected from rain, while in the north it remains completely open. The Chilean Statement NCh The calculation procedures set in this Statement are based on the assumption that the heat flux is developed in accordance with the Law of Fourier, at stationary state.
The method was to determine the thermal resistance of a layer of material of plane and parallel surfaces, by the following equation:. Thickness of the layer of homogeneous material [m]. Once the total thermal resistance R T was obtained the thermal transmittance U of the SIP64 panel was determined as follows:. According to this statement, the tested element must be analyzed under normal operating conditions, in order to reproduce, during the test, a similar system of embedding, supports and loads to which it has to be subjected.
To accomplish this, the tested element has to be of real size. The sample dimensions have to fit the furnace, so a 2. This implies that two SIP64 sample panels, of 1.
The temperature was measured by thermocouple on the side exposed to fire and infrared radiation in the unexposed side. Determined by the instant in which the element can no longer continue to carry the load bearing function for which it was designed. Determined by the instant in which the flames or high temperature gases are filtered by the joints or through any cracks or fissures formed during the test.
Gases emitted from the unexposed side, are considered flammable if, by approximation of a flame, they burn and spontaneously continue burning for at least 20 seconds after removing the flame. Chile has incorporated changes described in Section 4. These requirements have set thermal conditioning to the envelope of residential buildings. With no requirements in the past, these requirements were first set for roofing complex 2, and later for walls, ventilated floors and maximum window areas 2, In effect, since 2, Ministerio de la Vivivenda,this amendment provides that the envelopes shall have a thermal transmittance “U ” equal to or less, or a total thermal resistance ” Rt ” equal to or superior to the set for the area in question according to Table 3.
The total thermal resistance Rt and thermal transmittance of SIP64 was calculated Table 4 and in the table 5it presents the compliance thermal regulation for SIP Oriented strand board; R T: Analytical calculation obtained from the thermal resistance of the SIP64 panel was equal to 1.
When calculating the thermal resistance under Chilean NCh Of 91, thermal resistance was equal to 1. According to APA – The Engineered Wood Association,the “framing factor” is used to express a percentage of the total solid exterior wall area occupied by framing members, including headers.
The wood wall U-factor in the IECC is calculated based on the assumption that the area of a standard residential wall solid portions, excluding fenestration consists of 25 percent framing and 75 percent insulation.
This percentage of framing includes headers, which are typically 4 percent of the wall area, plus studs, plates and full-cavity width blocking. Framing that does not bridge the insulation e. Title 4 from chapter 3 of the OGUC, states that all buildings must meet minimum standards of fire safety, in order to facilitate rescue of occupants, minimize the risk of fire, prevent the spread of and facilitate fire-extinguishing fires.
To that end, in OGUC buildings are classified in types a, b, c, and d according to:. The building use e. Based on this classification, fire resistance requirements, expressed as an index of classification for each of the building types are set, so as required fire walls, partition walls between units, stairs and horizontal supporting elements, among others, meet certain degree of fire resistance.
During the test the panel suffered deformations, which did not caused failure. Consequently the fire resistance of SIP64 panel found to be 17 minutes, reaching the F15 classification according to Table 6. Ministerio de Vivienda y Urbanismo An alternative that allows to propose an analytical justification of the fire behaviour of light wood paneling is the Component Additive Method CAMThe National Building Code of Canada provides architects, engineers and builders with a simple, practical calculation method for assigning fire-resistance ratings to wood-frame and steel-frame wall, floor and roof-ceiling assemblies.
A collaborative industry-government research program was carried out recently at the National Research Council Canada to develop new fire-resistance ratings for gypsum-board protected walls. As part of the research program, a number of full-size fire-endurance tests were carried out on wood-frame and steel-frame walls. The results of those fire tests have allowed us to revisit those sections of the Component Additive Method which are applicable to light-frame walls lined with gypsum board.
This detailed review of reports of standardized elements of partitions, roofing structures and beams and hardwood floors trials, allowing substantiate time values assigned to the contribution to the fire resistance of each individual component as a constructive element American Wood Council, ; Wagner, The times assigned to different components are as shown in Tables 78 and 9.
This and other solutions of interest are detailed in Table 11mentioning both the total thickness of the construction element E T as their relative rankings of fire resistant RF Ministerio de Vivienda y Urbanismo, Consequently, the fire resistance of these panels is determined almost exclusively by the coatings. Usually an OSB board 9. However it fails to classify as F60 when another layer of the same material plaster board on the outer face is added solution 4.
This rate F60 is achieved by incorporating two sheets of 10mm plasterboard on each side with wooden racks and filled with mineral wool solution 5. To meet the rules established by the Ordinance regarding fire safety, someone could build less than m 2 and up to two stories house only with SIP64 panels for all structural and non-structural e.
Based on the times assigned by the CAM and the Rules of Harmathy, one could pose a dividing wall solution that meets the F60 requirement as follows:. From Table 7 a 9. Table 10the F15 SIP75 classifies as F30 if a 10mm thick plaster board is added at the fire exposed side.
This means that the contribution of the plasterboard panel is at least 15 minutes, although individually plasterboard 10 mm may be assigned a shorter fire resistance according to table 7.
Requiring a standardized full-scale fire resistance test, resulting in taxation, inhibits innovation and promotes a bureaucratic hurdle, besides being expensive, requires considerable time Wagner, To validate the CAM, it is imperative to develop a regulation governing the manufacture of materials used in construction, as applied in the US, with the Regulations Product Volunteers Voluntary Product Standard because so far is regulated by each company, generating differences in both composition density and product qualityresulting in different fire resistances.
Finally, Figure 7 shows a summary of technical criteria for habitability Shelter that comprises:.
Technical basis for Emergency Housing and Regulation are available. All the developed information is contained at Manuals of Manufacturing, Installation, Technical specifications and Regulations, all of which are available online on the website of the Faculty of Science Forestry and Nature Conservation from the University 2103 Chile. Move towards to the transient habitability timeline, from the disaster and evacuation to definitive solutions. Component additive method CAM for calculating and demonstrating assembly fire endurance.
Advanced framing – Construction guide, Ma, Disaster risk perception in urban contexts and for people with disabilities: