View Blumer-Herbert-El-interaccionismo-simbolico-perspectiva-y-metodo-pp 76 from INGENIERIA at ICESI University. a travls de la mteraccibn. El interaccionismo simbólico. Perspectiva y método. H. Blumer. 5 likes. Book. Get this from a library! El Interaccionismo simbólico: perspectiva y método. [ Herbert Blumer].
|Published (Last):||25 July 2007|
|PDF File Size:||14.46 Mb|
|ePub File Size:||3.19 Mb|
|Price:||Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]|
Crisis intervention strategy for intersccionismo suicide in children and adolescents: Journal of Psychology CES, 8 1 An intervention strategy is presented for suicide attempt in children and adolescents during the crisis period, based on the approach of symbolic interactionism.
Using a qualitative approach and hermeneutic methodology, 18 in-depth interviews were analyzed of children and adolescents with at least one suicide attempt and of psychiatrists, psychologists and general practitioners who have treated this type of cases.
Two types of lnteraccionismo to suicide surged, each with two subtypes: The anomic type with “ambivalent” interacfionismo “desperate” subtypes. The exalted type with subtypes: It is necessary to discriminate the various types and subtypes of drive to suicide as an essential aspect to make appropriate interventions adapted to the needs of each case. Emergieron dos tipos de empuje al suicidio, con dos subtipos cada uno: El tipo exaltado, con subtipos: Es necesario discriminar los diversos tipos y subtipos de empuje al suicidio como aspecto imprescindible para realizar intervenciones pertinentes y ajustadas a las necesidades de cada caso.
According with the World Health Organization WHO,every year almost a million persons commit suicide in the world, which supposes a global mortality rate of 16 persons for simbollico Likewise, it reports that every day there interaccionusmo an average of almost 3.
Suicide ranks today among the top three global causes of death in people years old and the second cause in the group interacconismo years old, which is now regarded as the highest risk group in a third part of the countries WHO, In persons 15 to 19 years old, it has global rates of 8.
WHO calculates that for yearthe magnitude of suicide will grow in 50 per cent, that is to say, it will reach 1.
Although traditionally the greater rates of suicide have been registered among males of advanced age, the increase of incidence and prevalence is a worrisome problem in young people, as shown in the statistics. That is why this group is considered the greatest risk in almost all the countries of the world, and it is recognized as a public health problem.
For the WHO bthe intervention of suicide is one of its priorities, as shown in its Simbolcio Plan on mental health and included in one of its objectives. To apply promotion and prevention strategies related to mental health” pg.
The perspective blummer suicide in Colombia shows suicide rates of 5.
The National Study of Mental Health shows that By differentiating the data by age group, one observes that the greater prevalence of suicidal behavior throughout life is among the group of years old, but if one considers only the yearthe prevalence was greater in youngsters between years old.
In Colombia, about youngsters under 18 year old kill themselves every year, that is why suicide has been recognized as a problem that specially affects the youngest population, particularly people between 15 and 24 years old CES University, Ministry of Health of Medellin; Harvard – WHO Consortium of Psychiatric Epidemiology, Between January and Julythe country reported cases of suicide; of which were men and women.
The age range in which more cases were recorded for both sexes was 20 to 24 years old, with cases of men and 25 women. According to the department, Cundinamarca ranks first with records followed by Antioquia with and, in third place, Valle del Cauca with 93 cases National Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences, Added to the above, the suicide attempt and suicide in children and adolescents involves one of the highest rates of incidence and prevalence in the Western world WHO, That is why; one can understand the enormous need for new intervention strategies that positively influence the situation in a timely, innovative and relevant way.
This perspective allows an approach to the phenomenon of suicidal behavior, and specifically to the suicide attempt. It is different from the traditional, since it facilitates understanding the act from the logic of the actors, starting with the meanings assigned to these and from there offers the essential foundations that allow the design and implementation of contextualized and relevant interventions for each situation.
While one thought, that it might be useful for health workers who takes care of children and adolescents with suicide attempt, the strategy is part of a specific psychic space, the one of the crisis. This aspect is especially important when you consider that during the “window of the crisis”, four to eight weeks after the suicide attempt — the best conditions exist to generate substantial changes to those aspects that form, from the interactionist theory, the drive to suicide Slaikeu, Also, to locate yourself in this approach implies that no standardized, linear or predetermined interventions for taking care of children and adolescents who attempted suicide but, on the contrary, a comprehensive framework is offered from which conditions may determine that in each case, have led the drive to suicide.
As a further aspect, it is possible to point out that considering the time frame of the strategy, as that determined by the theory of the crisis, does not make it relevant to the health workers and other significant persons that are directly related to the child or adolescents. Besides, it potentiates the effect of interventions to maximize the optimal time gold time that from this theory is defined for them up to eight weeks after the suicide attempt.
Thus, this strategy responds to the need to find alternative interventions that respond to the high incidence and prevalence of attempted suicide in children and adolescents, through the creation of a relevant and contextualized strategy in the realities of children, adolescents and their families, and that tends to adequate care, welfare oriented, to mitigate the high simbolici of re-incidence.
It is important to point out, that this proposal is articulated interaccilnismo other researches, which in this line have been carried out in Luis Amigo University Foundation, University of San Buenaventura Medellin, Colombia and the Interzccionismo Catholic University of Puerto Rico, since They are based in the same theoretical corpus, which lets you create a reference and intervention framework that addresses the phenomenon from different perspectives, and fostering of solidly supported interventions.
El Interaccionismo simbólico: perspectiva y método
Precisely, as a response to the ongoing research it intends to create an intervention strategy for the period interaccionismp the crisis up to four weeks after suicide attempt proposed by the theory of crisis and based on the symbolic interaction under the program “Young researchers and innovators from Colciencias CES University” for the period The symbolic interaction arises in the fourth decade of the twentieth century from the work of George Meadwith Herbert Blumer its main and most recognized theorist.
Blumer proposes three basic premises from which one can understand the phenomena associated with humans beings; these are:. Human act about things based on the meanings these things have for them, or what is the same, people act based on the meaning attributed to objects and situations around them.
This view resembles the perspective postulated years ago by Durkheim on suicide, which he describes as a socially constructed act and points out each society engenders a different kind of drive to suicide, different depending on the dynamics and specific characteristics that surge from the same.
Linked to the interactionist perspective is the role theory Sarbin,which serves as an essential basis for the intervention strategy presented. This theory is developed with input from several authors, but mainly thanks to the proposal developed by Erving Goffmana, b,who simblico the drama to explain the analogical interaction of people and what is constructed from these.
Compares life to a scenario in which people interpret some parts called roles that present in the simholico. Each person can develop one or several inyeraccionismo in his daily lives, but always trying to prioritize, consciously or unconsciously, the actions of one of them. The roles will give him a social identity and serve to set him in a position or status in front nlumer the rest of the society, which would be the recipient of the performance of these roles.
The performance of a role, whatever it is, involves a series of actions and individual and associated attitudes, which are usually predetermined by society audience, in the analogy of Goffman and therefore the actors, will be judged according to that expectation, depending on whether there is correspondence with what was expected of their “performance.
From the role theory, which involves an interaction between actors, one understands and proposes the suicidal behavior, a way to intervene over it, to obey to the same interactionist logic, conceiving the actor and those around him as it is suggested by Blumer Those dynamic and active processes take advantage of the ability the actor has to change the meaning in interaction with others.
The modern crisis siimbolico started from the study undertaken by Eric Lindemann and his colleagues at the reaction of people in the fire of Coconut Grove nightclub in Boston, United States, on November 28, Bellak, ; Slaikeu, ; Roberts, From those sources, Gerald Caplan concluded that it is necessary to prevent crises in the early stages of development, treating them efficiently, because otherwise they can lead to disorganization and even mental illness.
Slaikeu developed the main assumptions of the crisis theory, in which he says it is possible and necessary to identify the trigger event and it may be due to some specific event pregnancy, birth, home-school transition, disease, etc. In addition, the author points out that some of these events are universally devastating such as death or rape, while others do not facilitate the crisis for themselves but must be viewed in the context of total development of the individual.
Interaccionismo Simbolico y la Escuela de Chicago by Alejandra Villota on Prezi
Thus, the impact of these events will depend on the time, intensity, duration, sequence and degree of interference with other developmental events. The purpose of crisis intervention then, includes the integration of the event with the life of the individual, in order to suggest that there is solution of the situation. The event and its consequences must eventually take their place along other events, as part of a developing experience. This solution is made possible thanks to the material, personal and social resources that allow each individual to face in a different way, the adverse situations.
It is precisely this feature that allows us to understand the importance of adequate intervention with children and adolescents who have committed a suicide attempt during the “window of crisis” because it is a period during which they have great potential for transformation that, if is used positively will contribute decisively to prevent any further attempt Rocamora, As for suicidal behavior, which includes suicidal ideology, the suicidal crisis and attempt, it is possible to point out that is a highly complex behavior and somewhat vague in its definition.
Thus, there can be different conceptual models to address it, among which are highlighted the categorical, dimensional, etiologic and multidimensional models Rocamora, The categorical models are based on the description and observation of symptoms and from them, reach a diagnosis that allow appropriate interventions.
These models seek universality in its conceptualization and strategies of approach trying to facilitate from there the approach of the phenomena.
The dimensional models carry out a qualitative analysis of what is considered healthy from ill, with global approaches that take into account the etiology of the suicidal behavior, the clinical, biographical aspects and the real context. The etiological models include different explicative trends of the suicidal behavior among them are counted the biological-genetic theory that suggests organic alterations that predispose the psychological based on the analysis of the basic psycho-pathological readings that definitely, determine it.
These are sociological theories of Durkeim as its main representative that locate in a social behavior the basic conditions of the suicidal behavior and understand it as surging from them, more than an individual matter. Finally, the multidimensional models pretend to explain the suicidal behavior from the perspective that integrate different views, among which are the biological, social, individual and psycho-pathological.
The complexity of the phenomenon allows consideration of the multiplicity of perspectives, which can strengthen its approach if done with a flexible, comprehensive and critical look and avoid other dogmatic reductionist type, or at the other end, eclectic.
The aim of the project was “To design a strategy for intervention of attempted suicide in children and adolescents during the simboljco of crisis, based on symbolic interaction”.
The methodology is part of the qualitative approach to hermeneutics methodology. As a technique for interaccioniamo analysis was used the based theory. In-depth interviews were conducted because they are the best means to know in detail the experience of the interviewed, who were directly related with experience or attention of an attempted suicide in children and adolescents and, therefore, actors and main informants to nourish, from their perspective, the development interaccionsimo the strategy proposed in the objective.
Eighteen in-depth interviews were carried out with general practitioners, psychiatrists, psychologists, children and adolescents that at that moment were linked to a process of therapeutic care. According to the interactionist perspective, interviews were carried out in a natural environment for each of the groups.
They were done at home, in the doctor’s office or in the institutions that provide health services in which they live or work, guaranteeing anonymity and confidentiality for both patients and professionals interviewed, according to criteria set out in Resolution of and with the approval of the relevant ethics committees CES University and CES Clinic. General practitioners who work or have worked in emergency care in cases of attempted suicide in children and adolescents were selected.
Psychologists with experience in dealing with cases of attempted suicide among children and adolescents, especially in the third level of intervention, and children or adolescents between 11 and 18 years old, who had had at least one suicide attempt in a span included among the last four to eight weeks and had psychotherapeutic support at the time of the interview.
Inclusion criteria for all of them, was the acceptance of the ethical considerations of the project.
The unit of analysis used was called “The Suicide Role” and the categories of analysis: Some general aspects that should be considered by those undertaking an intervention with a child simbo,ico adolescent with suicide attempt during the period of crisis were found. Furthermore, two kinds of drive to suicide emerged, clearly different and that divide in two subtypes. The general aspects of the intervention with a child or adolescent who presents a suicide attempt are:.
It is the first element to be considered in the process of care of a suicide attempt, and even more when it is a child or adolescent. It is the essential axis, from which they may or may not be achieved relevant, innovative and timely interventions. If you do not feel the other as a dignified person blmer is living a very serious problem in his existence perhaps the most serious, questioning of his existenceit will be difficult to do something positive for him.
Qualification of health personnel with regard to the requirements of care of a suicide attempt, beyond the organic aspects. If awareness is crucial to good care, it defines the personal qualities of those who are responsible for it, the qualification points to how to it, and because of it is an essential complement to achieving good care. Beyond the theoretical model implemented, it is crucial that health interqccionismo have a basic theory and strategy, from which to intervene.
Understanding that the person attending is the means by which patient care is done. It is important to consider the personal issues that may emerge from the relationship with children or adolescents with suicide attempt: If the staff is sensitized and trained, it will tend less to be swayed by myths associated with suicide attempt, which disorient and generate intrusive interventions and on many occasions harmful, due to false assumptions upon which they are based.
Some of the most popular myths are Carmona et al, b:. It is of paramount importance to take into account the call of attention of children and adolescents, just as this, the desperate call of attention of a person, so much so that he may even risk his life to demand being heard.
Therefore, one should not confuse the wake-up call with a tantrum or act without importance because it is precisely the opposite. Call the attention means: It is not smbolico attention call “ignore me” which many people have, but rather, “Listen to me”, “I need you to look at me”, “I need to change simbolcio, “I need life to change. Some basic elements to consider are the site where care is performed lighted and airedtheir safety conditions, the chances of maintaining confidentiality, of having sufficient time to attend and not have distractions during the interview, among others, ensure the trust and confidence of the patient to express himself.