Fundamental principles of bhaishajya kalpana. The word Bhaishajya Kalpana is composed of two words – Bhaishajya and Kalpana. The word. Bhaishjya kalpana deals with the Basic Ayurvedic pharmaceutics. •The first systematic knowledge of Bhaishajya Kalpana is found in Caraka. Doctor of Medicine in Rasashastra & Bhaishajya Kalpana (Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacy) is Non – Clinical course. Keeping with tradition, the course.
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In Ayurvedic therapeutics, drug therapy is given prime importance. Considering its importance, different aspects of this discipline have been presented in this review to familiarize the readers, especially those who have just started studying Ayurveda, with concept of ayurvedic pharmaceutics. Different aspects of their preparation and use have been discussed. Further from the above basic forms, a number of other formulations are derived; a brief description of each of them has been given along with brief outlines of drug formulations meant for specific routes.
The third part of the review is devoted to discussion of influence of different factors on the expression of pharmacological activity. The second treatment method includes use of drug therapy or non-drug therapeutic measures such as regulation of life style, diet management, fasting etc. This tool needs to be handled judiciously, if not done so it is likely to prove injurious or sometimes fatal to the life of the patient who is receiving it. The information related to drugs and formulations along with diagnosis and management of disease accompanied with techniques of health maintenance through observance of proper daily and seasonal routines can be found in large number of classical and other literary works.
The authors of such works have categorized the drugs in different manners. Groups of classics known as Greater triad Brihat tr a yee and Lesser triad Laghu trayee are noteworthy among them. Apart from this lexicons and compilations authored by different scholars from different parts of the country written in sanskrita and regional languages have contributed enormously in this regard.
Similarly, use of an unknown drug may also prove injurious to the health of the patient. Drugs usually are known to possess destructive potential and hence need to be used carefully. He further elaborates the concept by saying that not a single substance in the Universe is devoid of therapeutic potential and hence is a potential drug source, provided it is used judiciously at appropriate indications.
Substances distributed in the Universe are derived from plants, animals or minerals, which also serve as the drug sources and hence are considered as basic drug classes. Plant, animal or mineral product in whatever nature they may be they can be hardly used as a drug in their natural form.
Hence almost every substance has to undergo a specific processing to acquire a form of palatable drug. Such processing is termed as pharmaceutics i.
The form which ultimately comes into kalpanw by the patient is termed as a drug delivery system or drug dosage form. Safety, Efficacy, Stability and Palatability are the four basic requirements of a good drug dosage form.
Ayurveda also gives prime importance to these four basic requirements. Hbaishajya different aspects related to drug formulation, preparation, storage etc.
In this respect edible substances are broadly divided in two categories: In Ayurvedic therapeutics, drugs in both forms are used, crude as well as processed and converted into different formulations.
It is necessary that the form of the drugs or formulations when ready for ingestion, should be not only effective but also easy to administer and agreeable to patient. The main emphasis is on removing the physical and chemical impurities from the crude drugs. Further, Ayurvedic classics also give emphasis to the elimination of inherent constituents of the drug which are inappropriate in specific clinical condition and toxic in nature and which enter into the formulation if not removed.
There are elaborate descriptions for employing different types of sodhanas for different kinds of materials. In this regard the procedures involved in mineral and metal based preparations are quite elaborate and will be dealt in a detailed manner in another review which is under preparation. An independent article is being prepared on Rasa Saastra hence this article will only deal with Ayurvedic pharmaceutics of plant based drugs.
The pharmaceutical procedures for any drug involve various steps starting from identification and collection of authentic raw material, application of standardized processing techniques, and production of quality drug to packaging and storage of the produced drug.
Ayurvedic pharmaceutics is not an exception to this. Only such raw material will produce the expected therapeutic effect provided it is used judiciously in proper dose. The plants growing in a graveyard or on a footpath should also not be collected. Raw material which is infected, burnt or chilled also is not likely to produce the expected therapeutic effect and hence should not be collected. As described above every substance in the Universe possesses a potential to become a drug.
But not all the parts of the substance are always therapeutically useful in view of the specific diseased state. In such a situation the therapeutically useful part of the substance needs to be separated out and put to therapeutic use. This can be achieved through specific processing. Many a times the substance may contain more bhaishajha one therapeutically useful constituent.
Different procedures may be required bhaihajya separate out such useful constituent. The components soluble in water are extracted in water whereas solvents like fat, kalpsna or alcohol are required to extract ingredients soluble in those solvents.
A combined solvent system is also used sometimes. Depending on the requirement, different procedures are adopted to extract therapeutically useful ingredients. Water being universal solvent is used for majority of extractions. Since the plant material used for drug preparation is very similar to food material the cooking practices such as heating, boiling, frying etc.
Fresh as well as dried plant material is used for processing- depending on availability and necessity. Different procedures are adopted to prepare a dosage form, which is stable for a longer period.
Kalpanna the type of pharmaceutical processing depends on following factors:. The Ayurvedic formulations range widely from freshly extracted plant juice to eye drops, ointments, surgical threads etc. The five basic forms are: Not all but some of the plant ingredients are therapeutically active. These ingredients have to be extracted from the plant and put to therapeutic kwlpana.
Water being comparatively inert universal solvent is used as a media for extraction of such active ingredients from the plant. Three types of extraction techniques, depending on the heat sensitivity of kalpsna plant material, are used.
The water insoluble plant material is separated and thrown out as a waste material at the end of all these extraction processes. Some of the plants require kal;ana extraction technique for obtaining expected therapeutic action e. It is apparent that the expected plant ingredients having specific therapeutic action of above mentioned plants will be destroyed if other procedures of extraction are utilized because of the sensitive nature of the related plant ingredients. In all these extraction methods water soluble active ingredients of the plant are extracted.
They are bhaishajha to use depending upon the condition of the patient with respect to his digestive capability e. The disease status also plays an important role in deciding the form of the drug. Severity of the disease invites use of concentrated drug forms. It is obtained from freshly collected plants. The useful plant parts leaf, stem, fruit or whole plant etc. The finely ground bolus is then collected and is mechanically squeezed to extract bhishajya much juice as possible.
Sometimes the plant parts may not be containing enough moisture to obtain the juice by applying mechanical pressure. In such cases two parts of water is added to the ground plant material and it is left to soak overnight. The soaked material is then squeezed to extract all the juice from it by applying mechanical pressure. Alternatively if the plant material is dry it is pulverized to yield fine powder.
Eight parts of water is then ,alpana to the powder. The contents are then subjected to heating to retain one fourth of the water.
In some cases the plant material requires steaming bhaisnajya facilitate extraction of juice. The paste is then rolled into a bolus which is wrapped in the coverings of leaves. Two finger thick layer of mud is then applied on the covering of bnaishajya. The bolus is then kept in an open hearth where it is subjected to intensive heat till it becomes red hot.
RASASHASTRA & BHAISHAJYA KALPANA
It is then removed from the hearth and allowed to cool. The coverings of mud and leaves are then removed and the bolus is taken out. It is then mechanically squeezed to produce the expressed juice. The dose of this expressed juice is 40 ml Savrikar, It bhaishaajya obtained by boiling the finely powdered plant material in required quantity of water till all the active ingredients are extracted completely in the water.
The retained liquid after boiling is then lalpana through a muslin cloth. The reason for boiling the plant material in water is to extract the entire water soluble ingredients.
Shri Ayurved Mahavidyalaya
The quantity of water required to be added and to be retained after boiling varies from plant to plant. The above proportion of plant material and water to be added initially and retained after boiling is prescribed for the decoction used for patient as a drug dosage form.
But four, eight and sixteen parts of water is added to soft, hard and very hard plant material respectively for the decoction to be used as base material for preparation of medicated oil or ghee. In all these cases one fourth bbhaishajya of water is retained after boiling. Additives such as cumin seeds, gum guggulu, caustic substances, salt, asphalt, asafoetida, mixture of ginger, black and long pepper in the measure of 3 g each are added as per requirement. If required liquids like milk, ghee butter oiloil, cow urine in the measure of 10 ml.
This clearly indicates that the ancient masters were aware of the existence of individual differences in the manifestation of bhaihajya and response to therapy.
Bhaishajya Kalpanaa – The Ayurvedic Pharmaceutics – An Overview
This was taken care by devising appropriate dosage forms. Finely powdered plant material is soaked in hot water and thoroughly mixed.
The mixture is then filtered through a four layered muslin cloth. Finely powdered plant material is soaked overnight in six parts of water. The contents are then filtered through a four layered muslin cloth. They have to be consumed by the patient as and when they are prepared.
Drug dosage forms having a longer stability are required by the patient and the health care provider. Sensing this need Ayurvedic classics have described many stable dosage forms. The stability period or shelf life of these dosage forms although in a generalized way has also been described by the classics.
Bhashajya plants and substances should be used only after one year after their collection, since till that time they are not ready for therapeutic use.