ASTM E – Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online. This standard is issued under the fixed designation E ; the number immediately 1 This practice is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee E07 on Nonde-. ASTM E – Designation: E – 09 Standard Practice for Ultrasonic Testing of Metal Pipe a.
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A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. These procedures have been successful with smaller sizes. These may be speci? These procedures are intended to ensure that proper beam angles and beam shapes are used to provide full volume coverage of pipes and tubes, including d213 with low ratios of outside diameter-to-wall thickness, and to avoid spurious signal responses when examining small-diameter, thin-wall tubes.
The procedure in Annex A2 may be used to determine the helical scan pitch. The SI equivalents are in parentheses and may be approximate. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appro1 This practice is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee E07 on Nondestructive Testing and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee E Current edition approved June 1, Originally approved in Last previous edition approved in as E – Summary of Practice 4. NOTE 1—The immersion method may include tanks, wheel search units, or systems that use streams or columns of liquid to couple the ultrasonic energy from the search unit to the material.
Basis of Application 6. The applicable edition of Practice E shall be speci? The practice or standard used and its applicable revision shall be identi? The methods used aztm cleaning and preparing the surfaces for ultrasonic examination shall not be detrimental to the base asmt or the surface?
Excessive surface roughness or scratches can produce signals that interfere with the examination. An independent channel or channels of instrumentation shall be awtm to individually monitor the responses from the longitudinal and, when required, transverse oriented search units.
The instrument pulse repetition rate shall be capable of being adjusted to a sufficiently high value to ensure notch detection at the scanning rate employed. The instrument shall be capable of this pulse repetition rate without false indications due to spurious re? A higher minimum value aztm desirable and may be speci? For material with an outside diameterto-thickness ratio less than 7, a lower refracted angle or corresponding parameters for non-contact techniques must be used to ensure intersection with the inside surface.
This does not ensure detection of midwall discontinuities See Reference 5. For small tubes, support mechanisms must be used in the examination station to prevent any transverse motion with respect to the search unit beam during scanning. Rust inhibitors, softeners, and wetting agents may be added to the couplant. To prevent spurious signals or loss of sensitivity, or both, care must be taken to avoid the presence of air bubbles in the couplant.
NOTE 3—In the contact method, some couplants result in better ultrasonic transmission when the tubing is precoated several hours before the examination. The reference pipe or tube shall be free of discontinuities or other conditions producing indications that can interfere with detection of the reference notches. It is recognized that in normal machining practice, a radius will be generated. Measurements may be made by optical, replicating, or other agreed upon techniques.
At the option of the testing agency, shallower notches may be used to provide a more stringent examination.
NOTE 5—For as-rolled or scaly pipe or tube surfaces, it may be necessary to modify The use of smaller notches by the examination agency is permissible, provided that concurrence is obtained from the contracting agency. NOTE 6—The amplitude of indications obtained from reference notches may not be linearly proportional to notch depth. This depends upon the intercepting beam width to notch length.
Standardization of Apparatus The response from the inner and outer surface notches should be as nearly equal as possible. Use the lesser of the two responses to establish the rejection level. On large diameter or heavy wall pipe and tubing, if the inner and outer surface notch amplitude cannot be made equal because of material soundpath distance and inside diameter curvature, a separate rejection level may be established for the inner and outer surface notches. NOTE 7—Distance-Amplitude Correction— A method of compensating for the reduction in ultrasonic signal amplitude as a function of material sound-path distance may be employed.
Details of the procedures used to establish and apply the distance-amplitude correction DAC curve shall be established by the using party or parties.
The pipe or tubing to be examined and the search unit assembly shall have a rotating translating motion relative to each other such that a helical scan path will be described on the outer surface of the pipe or tube. Axial scanning with circumferential indexing may be used to provide equivalent coverage.
Coverage shall be based upon the maximum effective size of the search unit, the pulse density for each instrument channel and the helix.
NOTE 8—Identical conditions include all instrument settings, mechanical motions, search unit position and alignment relative to the pipe or tube, liquid couplant, and any other factors that affect the performance of the examination.
NOTE 9—If a requirement exists for both longitudinal and transverse notches the following three options are available: This signal may be observed, but not gated, as a supplement to the required checking of the reference standard to provide increased assurance that the equipment is functioning properly. If such a signal does not exist, make more frequent equipment standardization checks.
ASTM E Standard Practice for Ultrasonic Testing of Metal Pipe and Tubing
NOTE 10—Some traversing mechanisms do not allow examination of pipe or tube ends. When this condition exists, clearly indicate the extent of this effect, per tube, in the examination report. Interpretation of Results Alternatively, the using party or parties may specify speci? NOTE 11—Rejected pipe or tubes may be reworked in a manner acceptable to the purchaser. If, upon ultrasonic reexamination of the reworked pipe or tube, no rejectable indications are detected, the material should be considered as having passed the ultrasonic examination.
NOTE 12—Care should be exercised to ensure that reworking a pipe or tube does not change its acceptability with respect to other requirements of the material speci? Make these checks prior to any examination run, prior to equipment shutdown after an examination run, and at least every four hours during continuous equipment operation.
Restandardize the equipment in accordance with This may be in the form of a strip chart recording or computerized aatm of the ultrasonic instrument output during the examination. e2113
It shall contain recordings of all standardizations and standardization checks and should be annotated to provide a positive correlation between examination record for each reject pipe or tube and the corresponding pipe or tube. Astn supplier shall maintain a report of the examination on? The report shall include at least the following information: The immersion method is almost always required for examining tubes for these uses. In some instances, such as? These procedures are intended to ensure that proper refraction angles and beam shapes are used to provide full volume coverage of pipes and tubes, including those with low ratios of outside diameterto-wall atm, and to avoid spurious signal responses when examining e2113, thin-wall tubes.
The incident and refracted beams in these cases are pictured as being generated by a cylindrically focused immersion search unit. In pipes and tubes with diameters several times larger than the length of a contact search unit, the general beam shapes are approximately the same. When examination of heavy-wall pipes and tubes is required the focal length, xstm angle and included beam angle of focused search ashm shall be suitable for complete through-wall coverage See 5.
This is necessary to ensure detection of discontinuities that are as long as the notches in spite of their random locations with respect to the scan path, See Annex A2. A refraction angle of 45 degrees is typically used when examining pipe or e21 with a diameter-to-wall thickness ratio of no less than about 10 to 1.
For many materials a 45 degree refraction angle may be achieved with a beam incidence angle of about 18 to 19 degrees. This may be achieved in the immersion method by parallel offsetting the beam centerline from a perpendicular to a tangent of the surface by a distance equal to 1? This is often a convenient initial adjustment during system standardization. For ease of fabrication, the inner surface notch should be nearer the end of the pipe or e21. When required, transverse outer surface adtm inner surface reference notches are typically placed in the same manner near the opposite end of the reference standard from the longitudinal notches.
Although not mandatory, this practice enables all notches to be placed far enough from the ends to insure good support of the material end nearest the search unit s during set-up, and the inner surface notches to be near ends to facilitate insertion of the fabrication and veri? This procedure becomes less critical for material of larger diameters and stiffness. The relative responses from both the inner and outer surface notches should be as nearly equal as possible and practical. Some differences in this procedure are required, as described below, depending upon whether the contact or immersion technique e21 employed.
It is important to note however that it is more difficult to obtain repeatable and accurate results with this technique asstm See 1: If it is determined that a lower refraction angle would be bene? Direct the search unit beam in one circumferential direction. Adjust the gain control to set the peak response at this re? Record the peak amplitude of the signal from the inner surface notch. The wstm response from the inner and outer surface notches shall be as nearly equal as possible by selection of the pair of adjacent inner surface and outer surface notch signal nodes are observed.
ASTM E213 Standard for Ultrasonic Testing of Metal Pipe Tube
On large-diameter or heavywall pipe and tubing, if the inner and outer surface notch signal amplitudes cannot be equalized because of material sound ashm distance and asym diameter curvature, a separate rejection level may be established for the inner and outer surface notches, or, in this case, DAC may be used to balance the signal amplitudes from the outer surface and inner surface notches. Any of the apparatus types listed in Note 1 4. The following selection and standardization procedure shall be used unless an alternative is approved by the contracting agency.
In satm where the type of examination, e123 dimensions or other properties make the use of spherically or? For very large-diameter material where this requirement is found to be impractical search units of other focal lengths or unfocused units may be used. Readjust the angulation and offset if necessary to renormalize by repeaking the interface signal. For many materials a satisfactory initial offset distance is 1? For thick-wall tubes a lower refraction angle may be required for examination of the entire thickness 5.
Alternatively, the search unit may be angulated in a plane perpendicular to the tube axis to produce the incidence angle.
Rotate the tube without translation that is, without motion along its longitudinal axis and observe on the instrument display screen the motion of the notch signal away from any residual interface signal. The amplitude should ee213 and increase as successive re? Note— Alternatively, set-up on the inner surface notch may be performed before set-up on the outer surface notch, as described in step h above.
This inner surface notch signal must be well beyond the direct-in signal from the outer surface notch. The outer surface notch signal subsequently used for standardization should then be from the node immediately beyond the inner surface notch signal to obtain the best condition for attempting to equalize both gated signals in the following step i.
Set the position and duration of the instrument alarm gate to include both of these signals.